International Agreements On Endangered Species
CITES is one of the largest and oldest agreements for conservation and sustainable use. Participation is voluntary and countries that have agreed to be bound by the convention are called contracting parties. Although CITES is legally binding on contracting parties, it is not a substitute for national laws. On the contrary, it provides a framework respected by each party, which must adopt its own national legislation for the implementation of CITES at the national level. Often, there is no national legislation (particularly in parties that have not ratified it) or sanctions with the seriousness of the crime and insufficient deterrence for wildlife traffickers.  In 2002, 50% of the contracting parties missed one or more of the four main requirements for one party: the designation of administrative and scientific authorities; laws prohibiting trade in violation of CITES; Sanctions for trade; Laws that provide for the seizure of designs.  Amendments to the Convention must be supported by a two-thirds majority that “is present and has the right to vote” and may be adopted at an extraordinary COP meeting if a third of the parties are interested in such a meeting. The Gaborone Amendment (1983) allowed regional economic blocs to accede to the treaty. Reservations (Article XXIII) can be issued by any contracting party, which significantly weakens the contract (see bookings registered by CITES parties for current reserves). Trade with third countries is permitted, although authorisations and certificates are recommended by exporters and requested by importers.
subject to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Washington, 1973, aims to protect endangered species by strictly regulating their international trade. CITES provides for a system based on the exchange of export and import licences and certificates. These documents are issued by the contracting states when certain conditions are met and, in particular, trade is not considered detrimental to the survival of the species. Examples of species listed in Appendix III and the countries that have listed them are the biphenyl (Choloepus hoffmanni) of Costa Rica, the sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii) of Ghana, the African zivette (Civettictis civetta) of Botswana and the alligator turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) of the United States. 7. Certificates covered in paragraph 6 of this article may be issued on the advice of a scientific authority, in consultation with other national scientific authorities or, if necessary, with international scientific authorities, for periods of no more than one year for the total number of specimens to be imported during these periods. If a party violates the convention, CITES may respond with sanctions preventing a country from acting with species listed by CITES. But countries are rarely sanctioned and the process can be highly politicized. Moreover, a country, since membership in CITES is voluntary, could simply leave CITES instead of accepting sanctions. 4. A State party to this Convention, which is also a party to another treaty, convention or international agreement that is in force on the date of this Convention and provides that the marine species listed in Schedule II are protected, is exempt from its obligations under the provisions of this Convention with respect to the trade of annex species models. , are imposed.
II, taken by ships registered in that state and in accordance with the provisions of that other treaty, convention or international agreement.